Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Animals Zoo Park

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Hanging Gardens of Babylon Pics and Pictures, Hanging Gardens of Babylon Info - The Wonders of the Ancient World

Posted: 27 Jan 2010 11:10 AM PST

The Wonders of the Ancient World Pictures and Gallery Photos : Hanging Gardens of Babylon Pictures and Info

Hanging Gardens of Babylon PictureHanging Gardens of Babylon Picture

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon PicsThe Hanging Gardens of Babylon Pics

Hanging Gardens of Babylon PictureHanging Gardens of Babylon Picture

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon PicsThe Hanging Gardens of Babylon Pics

About Hanging Gardens of Babylon :

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (also known as the Hanging Gardens of Semiramis) and the walls of Babylon (present-day Iraq) were considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They were both supposedly built by Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BC.

The Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by Greek historians such as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, but otherwise there is little evidence for their existence. In fact, there are no Babylonian records of any such gardens having existed. Some (circumstantial) evidence gathered at the excavation of the palace at Babylon has accrued, but does not completely substantiate what look like fanciful descriptions.

Some schools of thought think that through the ages the location may have been confused with gardens that existed at Nineveh as tablets from there clearly showing gardens have been found. Writings on these tablets describe the possible use of something similar to an Archimedes' screw as a process of raising the water to the required height.

According to accounts, the gardens were built to cheer up Nebuchadnezzar's homesick wife, Amyitis. Amyitis, daughter of the king of the Medes, was married to Nebuchadnezzar to create an alliance between the nations. The land she came from, though, was green, rugged and mountainous, and she found the flat, sun-baked terrain of the Mesopotamia (a region of southwest Asia) depressing. The king decided to recreate her homeland by building an artificial mountain with rooftop gardens.

The Hanging Gardens probably did not really "hang" in the sense of being suspended from cables or ropes. The name comes from an inexact translation of the Greek word kremastos or the Latin word pensilis, which means not just "hanging² but "overhanging," as in the case of a terrace or balcony.

The Greek geographer Strabo, who described the gardens in the first century BC, wrote, "It consists of vaulted terraces raised one above another, and resting upon cube-shaped pillars. These are hollow and filled with earth to allow trees of the largest size to be planted. The pillars, vaults, and terraces are constructed of baked brick and asphalt."

More recent archaeological excavations at the ancient city of Babylon in Iraq uncovered the foundation of the palace. Other findings include the Vaulted Building with thick walls and an irrigation well near the southern palace. A group of archaeologists surveyed the area of the southern palace and reconstructed the Vaulted Building as the Hanging Gardens.

However, the Greek historian Strabo had stated that the gardens were situated by the River Euphrates. So others argue that the site is too far from the Euphrates to support the theory since the Vaulted Building is several hundreds of meters away.

They reconstructed the site of the palace and located the Gardens in the area stretching from the River to the Palace. On the river banks, recently discovered massive walls 25 m thick may have been stepped to form terraces... the ones described in Greek references.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Photos info - The Wonders of the Ancient World

Posted: 27 Jan 2010 11:07 AM PST

The Wonders of the Ancient World : Temple of Artemis at Ephesus info Photos

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus PhotoThe Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Photo

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus PhotoThe Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Photo

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus PhotoThe Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Photo

Is it simply a temple? How could it take its place among other unique structures such as the Pyramid, the Hanging Gardens, and the Colossus of Rhodes? For the people who actually visited it, the answer was simple. It was not just a temple... It was the most beautiful structure on earth... It was built in honor of the Greek goddess of hunting and wild nature. That was the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus.

Temple of Artemis Location: The ancient city of Ephesus near the modern town of Selcuk, about 50 km south of Izmir in Turkey.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Description: Rectangular in shape, the temple was 170ft wide and 366ft long. The temple had 127 columns, (each was 66 feet tall) those at the front were decorated with intricate sculptures. The entire structure was erected from marble, an unusual material for building temples. A statue of Artemis stood in the middle of the temple.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Information: Following his conquest of the Greek city of Ephesus, King Croesus built a temple to honor the goddess of hunting/wind nature, Artemis. The temple was built in 550BC, and was designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron. It was built by colonists of the town, Ephesus. Inside the temple was an inner room called the sanctuary that housed a magnificent statue of the goddess. The temple became very famous and attracted visitors far and wide. Its purposes included both a marketplace and religious institution.

On the night of July 21, 356 BC, a man named Herostratus set fire to the temple in an attempt to immortalize his name. The roof caved in, the columns collapsed, and the statue of the goddess crashed to the ground. Over the next two decades, the temple was restored, with the additional help of Alexander the Great when he successfully conquered Asia Minor.

Then in 262 AD, the temple was destroyed again and the residents of Ephesus vowed to rebuild the it. During this time, the temple began to lose its importance, as many began switching to Christianity, the town was later deserted. The temple was plundered by Goths and later swamped by floods. In recent years, archaeologists have discovered and excavated the town. Attempts have been made to reconstruct the temple, but so so far only a couple columns have been erected upon the remaining foundation..

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Pictures - Info, The Wonders of the Ancient World

Posted: 27 Jan 2010 10:57 AM PST

The Wonders of the Ancient World : The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Info Photos and Pictures.

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus PicsThe Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Pics

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus PictureThe Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Picture

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus PhotoThe Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Photo

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus PictureThe Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Picture

Similar to the Great Pyramid, we are now visiting the burial place of an ancient king. Yet the Mausoleum is different - so different from the Pyramid that it earned its reputation - and a spot within the list - for other reasons. Geographically, it is closer to the Temple of Artemis... And it was the beauty of the tomb rather than its size that fascinated its visitors for years.

The Mausoleum Location : In the city of Bodrum (f.k.a. Halicarnassus) on the Aegean Sea, in south-west Turkey.

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus History : When the Persians expanded their ancient kingdom to include Mesopotamia, Northern India, Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor, the king could not control his vast empire without the help of local governors or rulers -- the Satraps. Like many other provinces, the kingdom of Caria in the western part of Asia Minor (Turkey) was so far from the Persian capital that it was practically autonomous. From 377 to 353 BC, king Mausollos of Caria reigned and moved his capital to Halicarnassus. Nothing is exciting about Maussollos life except the construction of his tomb. The project was conceived by his wife and sister Artemisia, and the construction might have started during the king's lifetime. The Mausoleum was completed around 350 BC, three years after Maussollos death, and one year after Artemisia's.

For 16 centuries, the Mausoleum remained in good condition until an earthquake caused some damage to the roof and colonnade. In the early fifteenth century, the Knights of St John of Malta invaded the region and built a massive crusader castle. When they decided to fortify it in 1494, they used the stones of the Mausoleum. By 1522, almost every block of the Mausoleum had been disassembled and used for construction.

Today, the massive castle still stands in Bodrum, and the polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted within the walls of the structure. Some of the sculptures survived and are today on display at the British Museum in London. These include fragment of statues and many slabs of the frieze showing the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. At the site of the Mausoleum itself, only the foundation remains of the once magnificent Wonder.

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Description : The structure was rectangular in plan, with base dimensions of about 40 m (120 ft) by 30 m (100 ft). Overlying the foundation was a stepped podium which sides were decorated with statues. The burial chamber and the sarcophagus of white alabaster decorated with gold were located on the podium and surrounded by Ionic columns. The colonnade supported a pyramid roof which was in turn decorated with statues. A statue of a chariot pulled by four horses adorned the top of the tomb.

The total height of the Mausoleum was 45 m (140 ft). This is broken down into 20 m (60 ft) for the stepped podium, 12 m (38 ft) for the colonnade, 7 m (22 ft) for the pyramid, and 6 m (20 ft) for the chariot statue at the top.

The beauty of the Mausoleum is not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof. These were tens of life-size as well as under and over life-size free-standing statues of people, lions, horses, and other animals. The statues were carved by four Greek sculptors: Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas, and Timotheus, each responsible for one side. Because the statues were of people and animals, the Mausoleum holds a special place in histroy as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece.

Since the nineteenth century, archeological excavations have been undertaken at the Mausoleum site. These excavations together with detailed descriptions by ancient historians give us a fairly good idea about the shape and appearance of the Mausoleum. A modern reconstruction of the shorter side of the Mausoleum illustrates the lavish nature of the art and architecture of the building... a building for a King whose name is celebrated in all large tombs today -- mausoleums.

The Colossus of Rhodes Greece Pics Info

Posted: 27 Jan 2010 10:57 AM PST

About The Colossus of Rhodes in Greece - The Wonders of the Ancient World Info Photos and Pics

The Colossus of Rhodes PictureThe Colossus of Rhodes Picture

The Colossus of RhodesThe Colossus of Rhodes

The Colossus of Rhodes

The Colossus of Rhodes PicsThe Colossus of Rhodes Pics

From its building to its destruction lies a time span of merely 56 years. Yet the colossus earned a place in the famous list of Wonders. "But even lying on the ground, it is a marvel", said Pliny the Elder. The Colossus of Rhodes was not only a gigantic statue. It was rather a symbol of unity of the people who inhabited that beautiful Mediterranean island -- Rhodes.

The Colossus of Rhodes Location :

At the entrance of the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece.

The Colossus of Rhodes in Greece History :

Throughout most of its history, ancient Greece was comprised of city-states which had limited power beyond their boundary. On the small island of Rhodes were three of these: Ialysos, Kamiros, and Lindos. In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory, with a unified capital, Rhodes. The city thrived commercially and had strong economic ties with their main ally, Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. In 305 BC, the Antigonids of Macedonia who were also rivals of the Ptolemies, besieged Rhodes in an attempt to break the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance. They could never penetrate the city. When a peace agreement was reached in 304 BC, the Antagonids lifted the siege, leaving a wealth of military equipment behind. To celebrate their unity, the Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect an enormous statue of their sun god, Helios.

The construction of the Colossus took 12 years and was finished in 282 BC. For years, the statue stood at the harbor entrance, until a strong earthquake hit Rhodes about 226 BC. The city was badly damaged, and the Colossus was broken at its weakest point -- the knee. The Rhodians received an immediate offer from Ptolemy III Eurgetes of Egypt to cover all restoration costs for the toppled monument. However, an oracle was consulted and forbade the re-erection. Ptolemy's offer was declined.

For almost a millennium, the statue laid broken in ruins. In AD 654, the Arabs invaded Rhodes. They disassembled the remains of the broken Colossus and sold them to a Jew from Syria. It is said that the fragments had to be transported to Syria on the backs of 900 camels.

The Colossus of Rhodes in Greece Description :

Let us first clear a misconception about the appearance of the Colossus. It has long been believed that the Colossus stood in front of the Mandraki harbor, one of many in the city of Rhodes, straddling its entrance. Given the height of the statue and the width of the harbor mouth, this picture is rather impossible than improbable. Moreover, the fallen Colossus would have blocked the harbor entrance. Recent studies suggest that it was erected either on the eastern promontory of the Mandraki harbor, or even further inland. Anyway, it did never straddle the harbor entrance.

The project was commissioned by the Rhodian sculptor Chares of Lindos. To build the statue, his workers cast the outer bronze skin parts. The base was made of white marble, and the feet and ankle of the statue were first fixed. The structure was gradually erected as the bronze form was fortified with an iron and stone framework. To reach the higher parts, an earth ramp was built around the statue and was later removed. When the colossus was finished, it stood about 33 m (110 ft) high. And when it fell, "few people can make their arms meet round the thumb", wrote Pliny.

Although we do not know the true shape and appearance of the Colossus, modern reconstructions with the statue standing upright are more accurate than older drawings. Although it disappeared from existence, the ancient World Wonder inspired modern artists such as French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi best known by his famous work: The Statue of Liberty.

Eiffel Tower Night Pictures History - 7 Forgotten Modern Wonders

Posted: 27 Jan 2010 10:50 AM PST

The Seven (7) Forgotten Modern Wonders of the World :
This post contains Eiffel Tower In the Night Pictures at France Paris and The History Of this Amazing Tower.

> Eiffel Tower History :

The Eiffel Tower was built for the International Exhibition of Paris of 1889 commemorating the centenary of the French Revolution. The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of England, opened the tower. Of the 700 proposals submitted in a design competition, Gustave Eiffel's was unanimously chosen.

However it was not accepted by all at first, and a petition of 300 names - including those of Maupassant, Emile Zola, Charles Garnier (architect of the Opéra Garnier), and Dumas the Younger - protested its construction.

> Eiffel Tower escription :
At 300 metres (320.75m including antenna), and 7000 tons, it was the world's tallest building until 1930. Other statistics include: 2.5 million rivets. 300 steel workers, and 2 years (1887-1889) to construct it. Sway of at most 12 cm in high winds. Height varies up to 15 cm depending on temperature. 15,000 iron pieces (excluding rivets). 40 tons of paint. 1652 steps to the top.

It was almost torn down in 1909, but was saved because of its antenna - used for telegraphy at that time. Beginning in 1910 it became part of the International Time Service. French radio (since 1918), and French television (since 1957) have also made use of its stature.

During its lifetime, the Eiffel Tower has also witnessed a few strange scenes, including being scaled by a mountaineer in 1954, and parachuted off of in 1984 by two Englishmen. In 1923 a journalist rode a bicycle down from the first level. Some accounts say he rode down the stairs, other accounts suggest the exterior of one of the tower's four legs which slope outward.

The tower has three platforms. A restaurant (extremely expensive; reservations absolutely necessary), the Jules Verne is on the second platform. The top platform has a bar, souvenir shop, and the (recently restored) office of Gustave Eiffel.

Eiffel Tower In the Night Paris Photo

Eiffel Tower Balck and White Pics
Eiffel Tower in France Picture - Sketch
Wonderful Eiffel Tower Picture
Eiffel Tower in Night Picture

Beautiful Picture in Night at france Paris

The Aswan High Dam Egypt Pictures and Facts

Posted: 27 Jan 2010 01:26 AM PST

The Seven (7) Forgotten Modern Wonders of the World : The Aswan High Dam In Egypt Pictures and Facts

This photograph from Space Imaging shows just how large the Aswan High Dam is

The Aswan High Dam in Egypt Picture

The Aswan High Dam Location :

The High Dam is located just south of the city of Aswan in Egypt.

The Aswan High Dam History (Facts):

The High Dam was constructed not only to regulate the yearly flood of the Nile, but also to create a water reservoir capable of storing water to prevent famine during severe droughts. Construction of the Dam began in 1960 as a national project, undertaken by Egyptian president Nasser who nationalized the Suez Canal to provide funds for the project. With the American and the British refusing to secure a loan for the construction, it was the Soviets that designed the earth structure and provided the equipment required to build the power station. During the course of construction, provisions were made to repatriate the Nubian inhabitants, and, in a multi-national effort, to relocate The Great Temple of Abu Simbel.

In 1970, the Aswan High Dam was inaugurated by president Sadat. Today, the reservoir known as Lake Nasser spans approximately 500 kilometers across the Egyptio-Sudanese border. In spite of the ecological problems caused by the dam, it has been a blessing to the Egyptian community. It left the country unaffected by the drought that hit Africa during the late 1980's, and, in the 1990's, spared Egypt several unexpectedly high floods. A regulated agricultural system is now in place, and, in 1996, for the first time, the water in Nasser Lake rose above the spill level. Plans are underway to populate the area along the spillway of Toshka and to create new communities along the recently constructed Zayed Canal in the heart of the Sahara Desert.

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