Saturday, April 24, 2010



seed predator fish - monitor lizards

Posted: 24 Apr 2010 06:24 AM PDT

seed predator fish - monitor lizards

Monitor lizard

Lizard in another language called bayawak (Sunda), menyawak or nyambik (Java), berekai (Madura), and the monitor lizard or goanna (UK).
Including reptiles lizards attends nursery ponds and fish hatcheries. Animals belonging to these reptiles are a group of large lizards of the family of lizards (Varanidae). More complete systematic way as follows.

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptiles
Order (nation): Squamata
Familia: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus

There are many types of lizards, but are generally detrimental to fish breeders are lizards of the species / species of Varanus salvator. Body length (snout to tip of tail) approximately 1 m, although some are able to reach 2.5 m. As the name implies, water monitor lizards generally live by the river or canal water, lake, beaches, and marshes, including mangrove swamps.

Clever iguana to climb trees, do not be surprised if the existing pond was climbing the tree found in lizards. In addition to prey on fish, lizards also target the birds nest in trees to prey on eggs and baby bird.

Lizards reproduce by laying eggs. At the time of the breeding season is often a fight broke out fight over females. The mating of the eggs will be stored in sand or mud on the banks of a pond, wetland or river, mixed with rotting leaves and twigs. Hot sunshine and leaf litter decomposition process will help to warm the eggs and hatching eggs.

■ Control
Lizards, including predatory fish is very greedy and should be kept away from the pond and fish hatchery units. It belongs to the bravest of predatory fish because the fish into the pond anytime even noon. Sometimes if not expelled immediately fled, Some are even trying to fight back. For that we need the courage to face it.
How to remove the lizard from the pond to catch fish is by using a trap or a hook. Trap or a hook was put in place often visited by lizards. In some areas of Sumatra and parts of Java, residents routinely hunt lizards, usually with the aid of hounds. Lizards are concerned will take the fight against the dog and the dog usually wins. After successfully disabled, lizards immediately arrested and tied up. Meat and hides for sale. Meat lizard skin disease believed to be drug and monitor lizard skins are usually used as raw materials handicraft bags, purses, etc..

Source: Khairul Amri and ToguanSihombing, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008

predator benih ikan - Biawak

Posted: 24 Apr 2010 06:16 AM PDT


Biawak dalam bahasa lain disebut bayawak (Sunda), menyawak atau nyambik (Jawa), berekai (Madura), dan monitor lizard atau goanna (Inggris).
Biawak termasuk reptil yang rajin menyambangi kolam pembenihan dan pendederan ikan. Binatang yang tergolong reptilia ini merupakan kelompok kadal berukuran besar dari keluarga biawak-biawakan (Varanidae). Secara lebih lengkap sistematikanya sebagai berikut.

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Kelas: Reptil
Ordo (bangsa) : Squamata
Familia: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus

Ada banyak jenis biawak, namun yang umumnya merugikan peternak Ikan adalah biawak dari jenis/species Varanus salvator. Panjang tubuhnya (moncong hingga ujung ekor) sekitar 1 m, meskipun ada pula yang dapat mencapai 2,5 m. Sesuai namanya, biawak air umumnya hidup di tepi sungai atau saluran air, tepi danau, pantai, dan rawa-rawa termasuk rawa bakau.

Biawak pandai memanjat pohon, tidak heran bila di kolam yang ada pohonnya ditemukan biawak sedang memanjat. Selain memangsa ikan, biawak juga mengincar sarang burung di pohon untuk memangsa telur dan anak burung.

Biawak berkembang biak dengan bertelur. Pada saat musim kawin sering terjadi perkelahian memperebutkan betina. Telur-telur hasil perkawinan akan disimpan di pasir atau lumpur di tepian kolam, sawah atau sungai, bercampur dengan daun-daun busuk dan ranting. Panas sinar matahari dan proses pembusukan serasah akan menghangatkan telur dan membantu penetasan telur.

■ Pengendalian
Biawak termasuk pemangsa ikan yang sangat rakus dan harus dijauhkan dari kolam dan unit pembenihan ikan. Binatang ini termasuk predator ikan yang paling berani karena masuk ke kolam ikan kapan saja bahkan Siang hari. Kadang kala jika diusir tidak serta-merta melarikan diri, malah ada yang berusaha melawan. Untuk itu perlu keberanian menghadapinya.
Cara menghilangkan biawak dari kolam ikan adalah dengan menangkap menggunakan jerat atau kail. Jerat atau kail itu dipasang di tempat yang sering didatangi biawak. Di beberapa daerah di Sumatera dan sebagian Jawa, penduduk secara rutin berburu biawak, biasanya dengan bantuan anjing pemburu. Biawak yang kepepet akan melakukan perlawanan terhadap anjing dan biasanya anjing yang menang. Setelah berhasil dilumpuhkan, biawak langsung ditangkap dan diikat. Daging dan kulitnya dijual. Daging biawak dipercaya sebagai obat penyakit kulit dan kulit biawak biasanya dijadikan bahan baku kerajinan tas, dompet, dll.

Sumber : Khairul Amri dan Toguan Sihombing, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008

How Coffee Beans are Grown

Posted: 23 Apr 2010 11:44 PM PDT

How Coffee Beans are Grown
by: Mike Chronos

Coffee is a brewed drink made from roasted seeds or coffee beans of the coffee plant. The plant originated in Africa but is now grown in over 70 countries. The beans are produced by different species of the small, evergreen bush of the genus Coffea.

The three main varieties of the coffee plant are Coffea Arabica, Coffea Robusta and Coffea Liberica. This plant has dark green leaves and fragrant, white flowers. The coffee bean begins as a green berry and ripens to a deep red color after about eight months.

Two of the most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea Arabica and the robusta form of the hardier Coffea Canephora that is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust. Both are cultivated mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa.

Of the two, arabica coffee is often highly regarded than robusta coffee since the later is bitter and has less flavor. Because of this, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide are arabica. However, robusta is less susceptible to disease than arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates - conditions where arabica will not thrive.

Robusta coffee also has about 4,050 percent more caffeine than arabica. This explains why it is used as a cheaper alternative to arabica in many commercial coffee blends. However, good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste and a better foam head known as crema.

Coffee plants need a tropical environment to survive. They thrive in warm weather and a moist climate with a yearly rainfall of at least 59 inches. Modern coffee beans are named after the place where they are grown. Top coffee producers include Brazil, Colombia, India and Indonesia.

Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed and dried. The seeds are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. These are ground and brewed to create coffee. Looking for the finest coffee in the world? For a unique coffee experience, visit

About The Author
Coffee lover and expert. Traveling the world to find the best coffee blends, beans, and delivering them back home. Check out my site to find some of the best coffee blends on the planet.

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Seed predator fish - Snake

Posted: 23 Apr 2010 08:31 PM PDT

Seed predator fish - Snake

Snake (snake) is a not-legged reptile animals and long bodied. Snakes have scales like a lizard and both were classified into the scaly reptiles (squamata). The difference, in general-legged lizards, have ears, and eyelids that can open the lid. Snake is one of the most successful reptiles evolved in the world. There are lots of families, genera and species of snakes that live in the world today. Systematics are as follows:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Sub-phylum: Vertebrates
Class: Sauropsida
Order (nation): Squamata.
Suborder: Serpentes, Linn, 1758.

Snakes swallow their prey to eat; means, without the chewed into pieces smaller. Teeth in the mouth of the snake is not working for chewing, but to hold their prey in order not easily separated. In order to smoothly swallowed, the snake usually choose to swallow their prey head first.
To warm the body and help smooth digestion, snakes often bask in the sun. Snakes reproduce by laying eggs. The number of eggs could be a few, tens or even hundreds of eggs. Snakes have no ears and eardrums, and has no sense of privilege on the sharpness of the eye. His eyes are always open and covered with a thin membrane that is easy to see the movement around him, unfortunately he could not focus her eyes. Snakes can only see clearly at close range. Senses that a snake is the mainstay of scales on his belly, which can capture the vibration of a human or other animal step. There is a hole between the eyes and mouth. snakes can serve as thermosensorik (heat sensor) this organ is usually called a niche or organs "Jacobson". Snakes can also determine the change of temperature due to the arrival of other creatures.

There are many types of snakes, but really a threat to fish is a snake that live in aquatic or semi-aquatic (water snake) in ponds, rice fields, rivers, swamps and lakes. This aquatic snakes prey on fish, frogs, tadpoles, and fish eggs. According to (Sachlan, 1975) fish prey on the greedy snake is a snake or a snake sacking Genis Striped (Homalopsis buccata). Snakes of this kind that loved to eat fish and fish seed is still sized adult.
In addition, there are also other types of water snakes found in the pond that is the rainbow water snake (Enhydris enhydris). Rainbow water snakes are often found in the channels of water, fish ponds, wetland environments, marshes and small rivers that have current calm. Rainbow serpent is very fond of prey on small fish, and often become pests in the maintenance of fish ponds. Other prey are frogs, toads, including children, and also predicted a lizard.
Bodied rainbow water snakes are relatively moderate, the maximum length of 80 cm, although most between 50-60 cm. Small-headed, paunchy, and short tail. Back (dorsal), generally light brown to olive-gray-black, with a pair of lighter colored line next to the backbone line. Body side (lateral) side down, bright yellowish or whitish, bordered blackish zigzag lines along the boundary with the ventral scales (stomach).

Sometimes it looks a little pink line faintly in the light of this, a similar pattern of elongated lace. The underside of the body (ventral), yellowish or whitish, sometimes with spots or faint line along the middle line.
At the time of morning and afternoon, a rainbow water snakes are often seen out head and partial body of water, and silence resembling kindling. There are times when some snakes appear together in the distance that is not how far.

■ Control:
Snakes can be controlled by way of direct capture these snakes. On the island of Java and Lampung, the hunting of wetland snakes and snake swimming a lot done at night, the snakes are taken skin and then sold. The trick with "ngobor" using a lamp pumped or center, and a snake that looks directly captured using hand. These snakes are not venomous or poisonous weak (mildly venomous), so its bite is not deadly. In some places in the interior of Central Java, the children often catch this snake snared by a stick through the head leaves. Alternatively, given the seed pool fence that snakes can not get into the pool area.

Source: Khairul Amri and ToguanSihombing, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008

Predator Benih Ikan - Ular

Posted: 23 Apr 2010 08:23 PM PDT


Ular (snake) merupakan hewan reptil tak berkaki dan bertubuh panjang. Ular memiliki sisik seperti kadal dan sama-sama digolongkan ke dalam reptil bersisik (squamata). Perbedaannya, kadal pada umumnya berkaki, memiliki lubang telinga, dan kelopak mata yang dapat dibuka tutup. Ular merupakan salah satu reptil yang paling sukses berkembang di dunia. Ada banyak famili, genus dan spesies ular yang hidup di dunia saat ini. Sistematikanya adalah sebagai berikut:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Sub phylum: Vertebrata
Klasis (kelas): Sauropsida
Ordo (bangsa): Squamata.
Subordo: Serpentes, Linn, 1758.

Ular memakan mangsanya bulat-bulat; artinya, tanpa dikunyah menjadi keping-keping yang lebih kecil. Gigi di mulut ular tidak berfungsi untuk mengunyah, melainkan untuk memegang mangsanya agar tidak mudah terlepas. Agar lancar menelan, ular biasanya memilih menelan kepala mangsanya lebih dahulu.
Untuk menghangatkan tubuh dan membantu kelancaran pencernaan, ular kerap kali berjemur di bawah sinar matahari. Ular berkembang biak dengan bertelur. Jumlah telurnya bisa beberapa, puluhan bahkan ratusan butir. Ular tidak memiliki daun telinga dan gendang telinga, dan tidak mempunyai keistimewaan pada ketajaman indera mata. Matanya selalu terbuka dan dilapisi selaput tipis sehingga mudah melihat gerakan di sekelilingnya, sayangnya ia tidak dapat memfokuskan pandangannya. Ular baru dapat melihat dengan jelas dalam jarak dekat. Indera yang menjadi andalan ular adalah sisik pada perutnya, yang dapat menangkap getaran langkah manusia atau binatang lainnya. Lubang yang terdapat antara mata dan mulut. ular dapat berfungsi sebagai thermosensorik (sensor panas)organ ini biasa disebut ceruk atau organ "Jacobson". Ular juga dapat mengetahui perubahan suhu karena kedatangan mahluk lainnya.

Ada banyak jenis ular, namun yang betul-betul menjadi ancaman bagi benih ikan adalah ular yang hidup secara akuatik atau semi-akuatik (ular perairan) di kolam, sawah, sungai, rawa maupun danau. Ular-ular perairan ini memangsa ikan, kodok, berudu, dan telur ikan. Menurut (Sachlan, 1975) ular yang rakus memangsa ikan adalah ular genis atau ular kadut belang (Homalopsis buccata). Ular jenis ini gemar sekali memakan ikan yang masih berukuran benih maupun ikan dewasa.
Selain itu, ada juga jenis ular air lainnya yang ditemukan di kolam yakni ular air pelangi (Enhydris enhydris). Ular air pelangi kerap ditemui di saluran-saluran air, kolam-kolam ikan, lingkungan sawah, rawa dan sungai-sungai kecil yang berarus tenang. Ular pelangi ini amat gemar memangsa ikan kecil, dan seringkali menjadi hama di kolam-kolam pemeliharaan ikan. Mangsa lainnya adalah kodok, termasuk berudunya, dan diperkirakan juga kadal.
Ular air pelangi bertubuh relatif sedang, panjang maksimum 80 cm, meski kebanyakan antara 50-60 cm. Berkepala kecil, berperut gendut, dan berekor pendek. Punggung (dorsal) umumnya berwarna cokelat muda zaitun hingga abu-abu kehitaman, dengan sepasang garis berwarna lebih terang di sebelah garis tulang punggung. Sisi samping badan (lateral) sebelah bawah berwarna terang kekuningan atau keputihan, dibatasi garis zigzag kehitaman di sepanjang batas dengan sisik-sisik ventral (perut).

Terkadang terlihat garis warna merah jambu agak samar di bagian terang ini, serupa pola renda memanjang. Sisi bawah tubuh (ventral) kekuningan atau keputihan, kadang-kadang dengan bintik-bintik atau garis samar sepanjang garis tengahnya.
Di waktu pagi dan Siang, ular air pelangi kerap terlihat mengeluarkan kepala dan sebagian badannya dari air, dan berdiam diri menyerupai ranting kayu. Ada kalanya beberapa ekor ular muncul bersama dalam jarak yang tidak berapa jauh.

■ Pengendalian:
Ular bisa dikendalikan dengan jalan menangkap langsung ular-ular tersebut. Di pulau Jawa dan Lampung perburuan terhadap ular sawah dan ular kolam banyak dilakukan pada malam hari ular-ular ini diambil kulitnya dan kemudian dijual. Caranya dengan "ngobor" menggunakan lampu petromak atau center, dan ular yang terlihat langsung ditangkap menggunakan tangan. Ular ini tidak berbisa atau berbisa lemah (mildly venomous) sehingga gigitannya tidak mematikan. Di beberapa tempat di pedalaman Jawa Tengah, anak-anak sering menangkap ular ini dengan cara dijerat dengan lidi daun kepala. Cara lain, kolam benih diberi pagar sehingga ular tidak bisa masuk ke area perkolaman.

Sumber : Khairul Amri dan Toguan Sihombing, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008

Pest control predator fish - frogs

Posted: 23 Apr 2010 05:59 PM PDT

Pest control predator fish - frogs

Control frogs

Adult frogs that live on land is a dangerous predator for the fish fry. In the tadpole, tadpoles and young frogs, toads compete with fish food and the room in which to live so that reduces the oxygen dissolved in water and multiply the remainder of metabolisms.
Adult frogs were found to prey on the seeds of hatchery fish in the pond and the pond and in the fields if the seeds are kept in the rice fields. Seeds of fish and large fish are often swallowed by a hungry frog. In addition to seed and large-sized fish, frogs also prey on fish eggs to be hatched, so the presence of frogs in the pond
seeding and separation is very detrimental to fish farmers.

as carnivores, frogs have a wide mouth that serves to facilitate the capture and swallow prey. Viewed from the color of the body, green frogs
prefer to lurk around the body or green plants as a disguise. At the stalking prey, frogs can survive long enough in silence, without moving. In terms of capturing prey, toads tend to prefer waiting for a victim who approached him rather than chasing back and forth.
If at the hatchery and nursery ponds found in frogs, the frogs must be controlled as early as possible. Effort to control the frog in the pond seeding 'or nursery that is not too wide so easy. The difficult part is in the hatchery business units large enough. Because, until now there has been no effective effort to eradicate the frogs. Frog poisoned with chemicals will adversely affect the surrounding environment and is strongly discouraged. There are three kinds of mechanical control is recommended, namely: infrastructure repair pool, cleanliness of the location control, and disposal of the eggs.

 Improve Infrastructure Pool

The existence of frogs around the pool area is generally caused by two things, namely food availability factor of the form factor and fish seed water as a medium for laying eggs, because in the course of his life he needs water to incubate eggs and raise the tadpoles, tadpoles and young frogs.
From observation, the seed-filled pond carp and African catfish was visited more than a frog pond filled with carp and tilapia seed. Nature of carp seed in the night
who likes to be on the surface of the water and pulled up toward the ridge or the nature of the seed of the African catfish actively feed at night and often to the edge to attract frogs to ambush him. While carp and tilapia at night rather stay in the middle of the pond and are rarely at the edge of the embankment. Toads prefer foods and willing to move closer to the edge of the embankment.
To control the presence of frogs is highly recommended because the brick edge of the pond was a frog with a concrete embankment will be difficult to find a good seat for stalking prey. If he had already entered into the pool, he can not get out again. Toads that do not have perches usually not be successful prey fish.
At the time of dike repair, try flattening the embankment with no gaps that could be used to place a surveillance frogs. It would be better if the dike is given a plastic coating. Or 50 cm from the dike towards the middle of the pond was given a plastic fence so that fish can not get to the edge of the embankment. Vice versa, frogs and eels can not enter the space occupied by fish ponds.

 Controlling Cleanliness Location
Place a clean, less suitable for frogs for prey, because it is less favored by the victim who was also looking for food or rest. Therefore, it is advisable to control weed growth around the dike, or who, stuck into the pool. Location of the many bushes around the pond
grassy ditches and rice fields that can become a frog hangout at noon.
 Discard Eggs from Swimming
Control activities by removing the interference frog eggs are also highly recommended. Eggs that will hatch already causing effects as discussed earlier. To more easily, use seser to collect eggs into a bowl. Further waste eggs on the ground so as not to be hatched.
The most accurate way but it takes time and patience is the eradication of toad mechanically. There catching frogs in the pond and then kill or move to another place. Besides, if it finds a frog egg to immediately dispose of and action on tackling this is done routinely. Eggs can be diserok with scoopnet (small tangguk) of gauze fabric. Eggs are removed from the water will die if exposed to direct sunlight.

Source: Khairul Amri and ToguanSihombing, PT. GramediaPustakaUtama, 2008

Pengendalian Hama Predator Kodok

Posted: 23 Apr 2010 05:43 PM PDT

Pengendalian hama predator ikan

Kodok dewasa yang hidup di darat merupakan predator yang berbahaya bagi benih ikan. Pada masa kecebong, berudu dan kodok muda, kodok menyaingi makanan ikan dan ruangan tem¬pat hidup sehingga mengurangi kandungan oksigen dalam air dan memperbanyak sisa metabolisms.
Kodok dewasa banyak ditemukan sedang memangsa benih-¬benih ikan di kolam pembenihan dan kolam pendederan dan di sawah jika benih dipelihara di sawah. Benih ikan dan ikan ber¬ukuran besar sering kali ditelan kodok yang kelaparan. Selain benih dan ikan berukuran besar, kodok juga memangsa telur-telur ikan yang akan ditetaskan, sehingga kehadiran kodok di kolam
pembenihan dan pendederan sangat merugikan peternak ikan.

sebagai hewan karnivora, kodok memiliki mulut yang lebar yang berfungsi untuk mempermudah menangkap dan menelan bulat-bulat mangsanya. Dilihat dari warna tubuhnya, kodok hijau
lebih suka mengintai di sekitar benda atau tumbuhan yang ber¬warna hijau sebagai penyamaran. Pada saat mengintai mangsa, kodok mampu bertahan cukup lama berdiam diri tanpa bergerak. Dalam hal menangkap mangsa, kodok cenderung lebih suka menanti korban yang mendekatinya daripada mengejar ke sana¬ kemari.
Jika di kolam pembenihan dan pendederan ditemukan kodok, maka kodok ini harus segera dikendalikan sedini mungkin. Upaya pengendalian kodok di kolam pembenihan' ataupun pendederan yang tidak terlalu luas sangat mudah. Yang sulit adalah pada unit usaha pembenihan yang cukup luas. Sebab, sampai saat ini belurn ada upaya yang efektif membasmi kodok. Meracun kodok dengan bahan kimia akan berdampak buruk terhadap lingkungan sekitar dan sangat tidak dianjurkan. Ada tiga macam pengendalian secara mekanis yang dianjurkan yaitu: perbaikan prasarana perkolaman, pengontrolan kebersihan lokasi, dan pembuangan telur-telurnya.

 Memperbaiki Prasarana Perkolaman

Keberadaan kodok di sekitar area perkolaman umumnya disebabkan oleh dua hal, yaitu faktor ketersediaan makanan berupa benih ikan dan faktor air sebagai media untuk peletakan telur, karena dalam perjalanan hidupnya ia membutuhkan air untuk tempat menetaskan telur dan membesarkan kecebong, berudu, dan kodok mudanya.
Dari pengamatan, kolam yang diisi benih gurami dan lele dumbo lebih banyak didatangi kodok dibandingkan kolam yang diisi benih ikan mas dan nila. Sifat alami benih gurami pada malam hari
yang suka berada di permukaan air dan menepi ke arah pematang atau sifat benih lele dumbo yang aktif mencari makan di malam hari dan sering ke tepian menjadi daya tarik bagi kodok untuk menyergapnya. Sedangkan ikan mas dan nila pada malam hari lebih suka berdiam di pertengahan kolam dan jarang berada di tepi pematang. Kodok lebih menyukai makanan yang bergerak dan mau mendekatinya ke arah tepi pematang.
Untuk mengendalikan keberadaan kodok sangat dianjurkan membeton tepian kolam karena dengan pematang beton ini kodok akan kesulitan mencari tempat duduk yang baik untuk mengintai mangsanya. Bila ia terlanjur masuk ke kolam, ia tidak bisa keluar lagi. Kodok yang tidak memiliki tempat bertengger biasanya tidak akan berhasil memangsa benih ikan.
Pada saat perbaikan pematang, upayakan perataan pematang tanpa ada celah-celah yang bisa dimanfaatkan kodok untuk tempat pengintaian. Akan lebih baik jika pematang tersebut diberi lapisan plastik. Atau 50 cm dari pematang ke arah tengah kolam diberi pagar keliling plastik agar benih ikan tidak bisa mendekati tepi pematang. Begitu pula sebaliknya, kodok maupun belut tidak dapat memasuki ruang kolam yang ditempati benih ikan.

 Mengontrol Kebersihan Lokasi
Tempat yang bersih kurang cocok bagi kodok untuk mengintai mangsanya, karena kurang disukai korbannya yang juga mencari makan atau beristirahat. Oleh karena itu, sangat dianjurkan untuk mengontrol pertumbuhan rumput di sekitar pematang atau yang -menjulur ke dalam kolam. Lokasi sekitar kolam yang banyak semak
saluran air yang berumput dan persawahan bisa menjadi tempat mangkal kodok pada Siang hari.
 Membuang Telur dari Kolam
Kegiatan pengendalian gangguan kodok dengan cara membuang telur-telurnya juga sangat dianjurkan. Telur yang terlanjur menetas akan menimbulkan efek sebagaimana dibahas sebelumnya. Untuk lebih mudahnya, gunakan seser untuk mengumpulkan telur ke dalam baskom. Selanjutnya buang telur-telur tersebut di darat agar tidak jadi menetas.
Cara yang paling tepat namun butuh waktu dan kesabaran adalah pemberantasan kodok secara mekanis. Tangkap kodok yang terdapat di kolam kemudian bunuh atau pindahkan ke tem¬pat lain. Selain itu, jika menemukan telur kodok agar segera di¬buang dan tindakan ini dilakukan secara rutin. Telur dapat diserok dengan scoopnet (tangguk kecil) dari bahan kain kassa. Telur yang diangkat dari air akan langsung mati bila terpapar sinar matahari.

Sumber : Khairul Amri dan Toguan Sihombing, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008

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