Tuesday, February 8, 2011



Ginseng Cultivation

Posted: 08 Feb 2011 08:22 PM PST

5ginseng 05 Ginseng Cultivation

Trend ‘back to nature’ in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, food and soft drinks, has spurred increased demand for ginseng. The high demand needs to be balanced with crop cultivation technologies that meet the aspect Q2S (Quantity, Quality and Sustainability)

- Preference will be given in open areas. Loose soil, high organic matter content, good aeration and drainage.
- Acidity (pH) of soil from 5.5 to 7.2.
- Rainfall 1000 – 2500 mm / yr.
- Temperature range 20 º C – 33 º C.
- Humidity 70% – 90%.
- Elevation range from 0-1600 asl.

- Prepare Natural GLIO (10 packs / ha) mixed with ripe manure (25-50 kg / pack). Store in an open bag for 1-2 weeks.
- Sprinkle dolomite / agricultural lime (2-4 tons / ha) on land that is still open at least 2 weeks before planting.
- Plow and harrow immediately after dolomite disseminated. Let stand about 1 week.
- Make beds stretching east-west direction, wide bed 100-120 cm, 40-60 cm tall. The distance between beds 40-50 cm. Let stand about 1 week.
- Create a moat around the area 40-50 cm wide, the depth of 50-60 cm.
- After 1 week, gemburkan beds surface sufficiently.
- Sprinkle the mix Natural GLIO and manure evenly on the soil surface.
- Add cooked manure 20-40 tons / ha evenly on the surface of the beds. If no manure, the use of HORMONIK can replace it.
- Prepare a solution of indukhormonik (1 bottle / 3 liter of water), stirring until dissolved. Dose HORMONIK 5 bottles / ha if the use of manure according to recommended dosage or 10 bottles / ha if not use manure. From the mother liquor HORMONIK 3,000 cc or 3-liter, taken 200-300 cc mixed with 0.25 kg of NPK compound and then dissolved or diluted in 50 liters of water.
- From the 50 liters of the pour on the surface of beds, how to use gembor 10 liters / ± 8 m long beds. Or 200-300 cc / hole.
- Sprinkle the mix Natural GLIO and manure evenly on the surface of the beds. Or in each planting hole.

4ginseng 04 Ginseng Cultivation
Breeding and agronomy
- Preference will be given to use seed from stem cuttings.
- Use healthy parent plants, indicated no signs of pests and diseases, age is not too young and too old, fresh and not wilted, bright color / gloss.
- Seed the cutting recess / stored in a humid for 2-4 days.
- Before planting, the base of the seedling is cut tilted ± 45 ° using a knife sharp and clean.
- Base of seeds soaked in the solution HORMONIK 20-30 minutes (1-2 ttp) + HORMONIK (0.5 to 1 ttp) + Natural GLIO 1-2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water.
- Seeds dikeringanginkan ± 1-2 hours.
- Planting done late afternoon, spacing of 50 x 60 cm or 60 x 70 cm.

The supply of water should not be excessive or flaws. Age 0-21 DAP (days after planting) watered every day to taste. From the age of ± 100 HST watering reduced or terminated.

3ginseng 03 Ginseng Cultivation
If necessary, up to 15 HST.

Fertilization aftershocks:
Pengocoran solution of fertilizer: NPK compound 0.25 kg + 50 liters of water. Give 200-300 cc / planting hole once every 2 weeks until the age of 100 HST.
Spraying fertilizer through the leaves was performed 1 week to 100 days after planting, use 3-5 cap NASA POC + 1-2 HORMONIK lid of the tank 14 or 17 liters.

Livestock Raising Bees

Posted: 07 Feb 2011 10:12 PM PST

1raisings bees 01 Livestock Raising Bees


The bee is a honey-producing insects that have long been known to man. Since ancient times humans hunt bee nests in caves, in tree holes and other places to take the honey. Bees also produce products that are urgently needed for world health that is royal jelly, pollen, night (candles) and so forth. Furthermore, humans began to cultivate gelodog using wooden and currently with the system hive.


Bees, including animals that fall into the class of insects Apini family and genus Apis. Various species, which is widely available in Indonesia is A. Cerana, A. Dorsata A. Florea. Superior type which often
cultivated is the type A. mellifera. According to its origin bee divided into 4 types based on distribution:

1. Apis Cerana, probably derived from mainland Asia spread to Afghanistan, China and Japan.
2. Apis mellifera, are often found in mainland Europe, eg France, Greece and Italy as well as in areas around the Mediterranean.
3. Dorsata Apis, has the largest body size with the spread of sub-tropical and tropical Asia such as Indonesia, the Philippines and beyond.
4. Apis Florea is the smallest species spread from the Middle East, India to Indonesia.


Products produced honey is:

1. Honey as the main product derived from the flower nectar is a food that is very useful for health care, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
2. Royal jelly is used for stamina and healing diseases, as a cosmetic ingredient, a mixture of drugs.
3. Pollen (pollen) is used to mix medicine / pharmaceutical interests.
4. Beeswax (night) be utilized for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry as a complementary mixture.
5. Propolis (bee glue) for healing wounds, skin diseases and kill influenza virus.

Another advantage of raising honey bees is to assist in the process of flower pollination of plants in order to get maximum results.


2raisings bees 02 Livestock Raising Bees

The ideal temperature is suitable for bee is about 26 degrees C, at this temperature the bees can work normally. Temperatures above 10 degrees C the bees still indulge. On the slopes of the mountains / highlands normal temperature (25 degrees C) the preferred location of bees is an open place, away from the crowds and there are many flowers as food.


In the cultivation of honey bees that need to be prepared as follows: Location of aquaculture, cage modern bee (hive), work clothes and equipment are the main requirements that must be filled in the cultivation of bees are there is a queen bee and thousands of worker bees and drones. In one colony should be no more than one queen because the queen will kill each other between to lead the colony.

1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
1. Perkandangan
1. Temperature
Changes in temperature in the hive should not be too fast, therefore the thickness of the wall need to be considered to keep the temperature in the hive to remain stable. Commonly used is 2.5 cm thick soft wood.
2. Resistance to climate
Materials used should be resistant to the influence of rain, hot, weather is constantly changing, sturdy and not easily destroyed or damaged.
3. Construction
Construction traditional cage using gelodok of bamboo, the modern use of hive boxes equipped with
2. Equipment
Tools used in bee culture consists of: mask, work clothes and gloves, pengasap, baffle queen, queen cages, brooms and brushes, where to eat, pondamen nest, small tools, equipment raise queens and others.
2. Nurseries
1. Seed Selection and Candidate Master
Seeds bee superior in Indonesia there are two types of A. Cerana (local) and A. mellifera (import). Queen bee is the essence of the formation of colonies of bees, hence the choice of aims for excellence in one colony of bees to maximum production. queen A. Cerana capable of laying 500-900 eggs per day and queens A. mellifera capable of laying 1500 eggs per day. To get these seeds now available are three purchase package bees seeds:
1. package consists of a queen bee queen bee with 5 workers.
2. package consists of a queen bee with 10,000 worker bees.
3. packet core family consists of 1 queen and 10,000 worker bees complete with 3 sisiran nest.
2. Seed treatment and Prospective Parent
Bees newly bought specially treated. One day after purchase, the queen removed and inserted into the hive that had been prepared. During 6 days the bees could not be disturbed because it is still in the adaptation to be more sensitive to unfavorable environment. After that can be implemented for routine maintenance and care.
3. Pemuliabiakan System

3raisings bees 03 Livestock Raising Bees
Pemuliabiakan the new queen bee is created as an effort to develop the colony. How that is commonly performed is to manufacture artificial mangkokan for queen candidates are placed in sisiran. But now it has developed an artificial insemination on queen bees to get a candidate superior queen and worker bees. Pemuliabiakan bees have been successfully developed by KUD Batu Malang.
4. Reproduction and Marriage
In each colony there are three types of bees each queen bee, worker bees and drones. Reproductive organs of female worker bees who do not develop so that does not work, while the developing reproductive queen bee perfect and functioning for reproduction.

4raisings bees 04 Livestock Raising Bees
The process of marriage occurs flower season begins. Queen bees fly out of the nest followed by all males who would marry her. Marriages occur in the air, after mating the male sperm will die and will be stored in a spermatheca (sperm sac) contained in the queen bees and queen returned to the nest. During the mating hive worker bees prepare for egg-laying queen.
5. Hatching Process
After mating, the queen bee will surround the nest to look for cells that are still vacant in sisiran. A single egg is placed in the bottom of the cell. The tube containing cells that have the eggs will be filled with honey and bee pollen by worker and management will be closed after a thin layer that can later be penetrated by an adult occupant. To remove an egg takes about 0.5 minutes, after removing 30 eggs, the queen will break 6 seconds to eat. Tube cell types in sisiran are:
1. Tues prospective queens, big size, irregular and usually located on the edge of the nest.
2. Tues male candidates, marked with a lid and there are prominent black dot in the middle.
3. Tues candidates for employment, small, flat lid and the most numerous.

The honey bee is an insect with 4 levels of life namely egg, larva, pupa and adult insect. Old at every level have varying time differences. The average development time of bees:
1. Queen Bees: 3 days to hatch, the larvae 5 days, covering yarn formed 1 day, 2 days rest, Changes 1 day larvae become pupae, pupa / chrysalis 3 days, total time of 15 days so the bees.
2. Worker bee: 3 days to hatch, the larvae 5 days, formed yarn cover 2 days, rest 3 days, Changes 1 day larvae become pupae, pupa / chrysalis 7 days, the total time of 21 days so the bees.
3. Bees males: 3 days to hatch, the larvae 6 days, formed yarn cover 3 days, rest 4 days, Changes 1 day larvae become pupae, pupa / chrysalis 7 days, the total time of 24 days so the bees. During the larval period, larvae in the tube will eat honey and pollen as much as possible. This period is called the active period, then the larvae become pupae (pupa). In the cocoon of bees do not eat and drink, at this time there is a change in the body of the bee pupa to become perfect. After a perfect bee will come out of cells into young bees appropriate cell origin.

3. Maintenance
1. Sanitation, Preventive Measures and Treatment
In the modern bee management bees placed in the cage in the form of so-called hive box. In the hive there is room for a few frames or sisiran. With this system, farmers can be diligent in checking, maintaining and cleaning the hive parts such as cleaning the hive basis of the existing dirt, preventing ants / insects from entering the water at the foot mats provide hive and prevent the entry of animal pests.
2. Disease Control
Control includes removing bees and sisiran abnormal nest and hive hygiene.
3. Feeding
The way of feeding bees is by raising bees to the places where many flowers. So adapted to the existing spring. In a pastoral note is:
1. Displacement locations done at night when bees are not active.
2. When the distance to food additives (artificial).
3. The distance between the location of grazing a minimum of 3 km.
4. The area, other plants are flowering and the flower season.

The main purpose of this grazing is to maintain continuity of production so as not to decrease drastically. Additional feeding outside the main feed aims to overcome the shortage of feed due to a bad season / time of transfer when penggeembalaan hive. Additional feed is not able to increase production, but only serves to maintain the life of bees. Additional feed materials can be made from sugar and water with a ratio of 1:1 and a mixture of flour dough from yeast, soy flour and dry milk with a ratio of 1:3:1 plus honey to taste.

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