Monday, April 11, 2011

Oil Palm Trees

Posted: 10 Apr 2011 09:27 PM PDT

5oil palm 05 Oil Palm Trees

Oil palm (Elaeis) is an important industrial plants producing cooking oil, industrial oil, and fuel (biodiesel). Plantations generate huge profits, so many old plantation forest and converted into oil palm plantations. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer in the world. In Indonesia, its spread in the region of Aceh, the east coast of Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi.

Pemerian botany

Palm tree-shaped. Height can reach 24 meters. Root fibers of oil palm plantations leads to the bottom and sides. In addition, there is some breathing roots that grow above leads to the side to earn extra aeration.

Like other palm species, compound pinnate leaves are arranged. Dark green leaves and colored midrib slightly younger. His appearance was somewhat similar to the bark of plants, only with a thorn that is not too hard and sharp. Midrib former plant stems covered up to age 12 years. After 12 years of dry sheath apart so that the appearance will be similar to a coconut.

Male and female flowers separate but on one tree (monoecious diclin) and have different maturation times so very rare self-pollinating. Male flowers have a taper shape and length while the female flowers appear larger and bloom.

1oil palm 01 Oil Palm Trees

Plantations of the shell type is female sterile pisifera so very rarely produce fruit bunches and in the production of improved seed is used as the elder male.

Oil palm fruit has a color varies from black, purple, to red depending on the seeds used. Fruit clustered in bunches that emerge from each sheath. Oil is produced by the fruit. Oil content increases as the fruit ripeness. After passing through the mature phase, the content of free fatty acid (FFA, free fatty acids) will increase and the fruit will fall off by itself.

2oil palm 02 Oil Palm Trees

The fruit consists of three layers:

* Eksoskarp, the reddish rind and slippery.
* Mesoskarp, fruit fibers
* Endoskarp, protective shell core

Palm kernel (the kernel, which Actually]] it is the seed) is the endosperm and embryo with high-quality core oil content.

Oil palm breeding generative manner. Mature oil palm fruit in certain circumstances embryo will germinate to produce shoots (plumula) and going to the root (radicle).

3oil palm 03 Oil Palm Trees

Term life

Original habitat is an area of ​​scrubland. Palm can grow well in the tropics (15 ° N – 15 ° S). This plant is fully grown at an altitude of 000-500 m above sea level with 80-90% humidity. Palm requires stable climate with rainfall, 2000-2500 mm a year, ie areas not flooded when it rains and drought are not as dry. Annual rainfall patterns affect the behavior of flowering and fruit production of oil.

Type of oil palm

Oil palm is cultivated consists of two types: E. guineensis and E. oleifera. The first type is the first and largest cultivated people. E. oleifera is also now beginning to be cultivated to increase the diversity of genetic resources.

Breeder often see the type of oil palm based on the thickness of the shell, which consists of

* Dura,
* Pisifera, and
* Tenera.

4oil palm 04 Oil Palm Trees

Dura is a palm whose fruits have a thick shell that is considered to shorten the processing machine age but usually large fruit bunches and oil content per clusters ranging from 18%. Pisifera men do not have shells but sterile female flowers, so very rarely produce fruit. Tenera is a cross between Dura and male parent Pisifera. This species is considered to complement the shortage of quality seeds for each parent with the nature of a thin shell of fruit but still fertile female flowers. Some Tenera winning percentage of meat per piece up to 90% and oil content per clusters can reach 28%.

For mass breeding, tissue culture techniques now used.

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