Monday, February 28, 2011

Beautiful Flower Anthurium

Posted: 28 Feb 2011 06:58 PM PST

1anthurium 01 Beautiful Flower Anthurium

Anthurium including plants from the Araceae family. This beautiful leaved plants still allied with a number of popular ornamental plants such aglaonema, philodendron, ornamental taro, and alokasia. In the family Araceae, Anthurium is a genus with the largest number of species. It is estimated there are about 1000 species of genus Anthurium.

These plants include evergreen plants or do not know the period of dormancy. The wild, these plants usually live in epiphyte with a stick in the trunk. Can also live in terrestrial forest floor.

The main attraction of anthurium is a beautiful leaf shape, unique, and varied. The leaves are generally dark green leaves with veins and bones large and prominent. So that makes the figure of this plant looks sturdy but still radiates elegance when adult. Not surprisingly, these plants have a luxurious and exclusive. In the past, anthurium many ornate gardens and the palace became the kingdoms in Java. That said, revered as the king of crops.

In general, the anthurium is divided into two kinds of leaves and the kind anthurium anthurium flowers. Anthurium leaf has allure, especially from other forms of special leaves. While the flower anthurium further highlight both the diversity of interest and of species hybrids. Usually the type of anthurium flowers used for cut flowers.

Sunday, February 27, 2011

How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap

Posted: 27 Feb 2011 06:04 PM PST

1How Livestock Rabbits 01 How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap

Why choose breeding rabbits? a fair question for people who are not familiar with ins and outs of business raising rabbits. Because in reality are many advantages of this business. Among the reasons why choosing breeding rabbits is as follows:

1. Maintenance and maintenance easy.
2. No need large area.
3. Production costs are relatively cheap so it does not require large capital.
4. Livestock producer of quality meat with low fat content.
5. The availability of abundant food, being able to use the feed from kitchen waste and by-products of agricultural products.
6. Prolific including livestock, namely cattle are able to bear much per birth
7. Byproducts could still be use.

2How Livestock Rabbits 02 How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap

Here are some things to get attention before you start breeding rabbits:
Site selection
Selection of the location of livestock rabbit much influenced by many factors, including:

  • The location should be near food sources (areas of vegetable crops, vegetable markets, or markets in general)
  • Location close to the area of marketing. But this does not apply to farmers who already have a community or community
  • Temperature or ideal temperature between 15-25? C
  • Wherever possible cultivated cage location close to river flow and away from residential
  • The location is safe from wild animals or thieves

3How Livestock Rabbits 03 How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap
Choosing seed

The following criteria can be used as guidelines for selecting seedlings rabbit:
• Parent is known parent or in other words the prospective parent has a production record (number of children perkelahiran, ability to grow, etc) and reproduction notes (services per conception, fertility, reproductive state, etc.)

  • Parent has a nipple more than 8 pieces
  • The behavior is not nervous and have enough fur to make nests
  • The physical condition of the normal healthy body, eyes shining, feathers are clean and not wrinkled, pepleh not erect ears, etc.

Many species of plants and vegetables that can be given to rabbits. Ynag important is the food is able to meet the nutritional requirements of rabbits that hope is the animals can grow and develop well and showing good production notes that give advantage to us.

4How Livestock Rabbits 04 How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap
Among the diet composition of cattle rabbit that can be used reference is a concentrate feed consisting of 50 grams for growth and fattening rabbits, 70 grams for pregnant mother, 150-200 for the mother to breastfeed, were given ad libitum grass (infinite).


Aspects of reproduction plays an important role in order to increase the number of population. Livestock rabbit is one type of livestock including Prolific means capable of lambing much per birth. There are a few tips for rabbit animal reproduction has a good record:

  • Age of first breeding ranged from 5-6 months
  • Select a time married early morning or late afternoon
  • balance sex ratio is 1:10, meaning that a male parent to serve 10 cows
  • Marital back after lambing. If the rabbit is expected of cattle going to the parent can be mated 7-10 days after lambing. But if the desired future is as a replacement livestock (stock replacement) then the parent should be mated again 40-45 days after lambing or after weaning children off

5How Livestock Rabbits 05 How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap
Serves to protect rabbits from external influences such as bad weather, wild animals and thieves. Livestock rabbits can be kept in a colony and individually. But according to experience and observation that the rabbits are grounded will be easier to control, and handling. Indeed, there is no standard in making a rabbit cage.

The point is that the rabbit is comfortable to live in it so it will display the best production. But keep in mind also about the cost of manufacture, not to capital will be discharged only to make a cage. But it is not wrong if you try to measure that is often used by people that is the size LxWxH = 90 × 60 × 60 cm. if the nest will be placed around the nest, the nest size LxWxH = 40 × 30 × 30cm.

Good luck!

6How Livestock Rabbits 06 How Livestock Rabbits with True and Cheap

Thursday, February 24, 2011

How Honey Bee Farming?

Posted: 24 Feb 2011 08:25 PM PST

1dark honey bee hemberger 01 How Honey Bee Farming?

There are various types of honey bees are worth conducting. Among bees the type of forest bees (Apis dorsata), local bee (Apis Cerana), and superior bee (Apis mellifera). Bees superior, as the name implies, the preferred market. This type is more productive than the local bees, as well as more benign. Toxins in the bee sting is very suitable for the treatment of various diseases. Bees are cultivated by most farmers in the world originally came from mainland Europe.

In raising the capital required is basic knowledge of honey bees in honey bee breeding, fixed capital investment required in the honey bee farming activities during several periods of harvesting, including the means of production and honey bee colony is ideally at least 40 boxes 100 boxes of honey bee colonies.

Selection of type of superior seeds Honey Bees

The characteristics of super quality seed honey bees:

  • Queen bees have a good physical and aged between 3 months to 1 year
  • The amount and quality of eggs produced by Queen bee many
  • Yields better results more honey, bee pollen, royal jelly and propolis
  • Bee larvae produced more fresh
  • Bees are usually more aggressive

2dark honey bee hemberger 02 How Honey Bee Farming?

Honey bee colonies reproduce

Raising honey bees to produce the optimum benefits of honey a beekeeper should have a minimum of 100 boxes of honey bee colonies. Measures to increase the number of honey bee colonies:

Pastored bee honey on the location of available feed quite a lot. With the availability of adequate food, the queen bee will produce more eggs and worker bees also harder to make new nests.

  • Prepare candidates for queen honey bees to be placed in a new honey bee colony.
  • Separating the honey bee colonies that have been crowded into a box of honey bee colonies placed new and prospective new queen bee or other ready-made queen.

Make prospective Queen Bees

  1. Take the honey bee larvae newly hatched 1 day old
  2. Enter into a single piece frame Royal jelly
  3. Frame Royal jelly is already filled with honey bee larvae in place of the super box (the box containing the honey bee honey bee colonies at least 2 levels)
  4. Bulkhead / separate the super box with the queen bee honey bees are in the box below and frames royal jelly honey bee queen candidates placed on the box top. So the queen honey bees do not get near the candidate honey bee queens.
  5. Let stand for 11 days until the prospective queen bees pupate.
  6. After eleven days Calin queen bee moved to the besisi box without any queen bee colonies.
  7. 13 days prospective queen bee out of their cocoons and immediately appointed as queen bee of the bee colony
  8. Usually after a week the queen bee is ready to mate and develop new colonies of bees which are occupied.

3dark honey bee hemberger 03 How Honey Bee Farming?

Honey Bee Farming Equipment:

  1. Bee box, place the honey bee colony is made of wood or Mahogany Suren
  2. Tools to create smoke, to tame an aggressive honey bees
  3. Protective mask of honey bee attack
  4. Levers comb
  5. Brush comb honey bee
  6. Comb made of wood frame and wire in the middle given as backing the basis of honey bee hives
  7. Pollen Trap for harvesting Bee Pollen
  8. Frame Royal Jelly Royal jelly is to harvest and make prospective Queen Bees
  9. Extraktor to harvest honey

Grazing Honey Bees

Between the months of May through September is the period where the herding bees beekeeping honey into plantations which provide quite a lot of honey bee forage.

Honey beekeepers on the island of Java generally herding bees to honey Rubber plantation, Kapok, Rambutan, Longan, Mango, Coffee and Duwet. Honey is produced based on the specification so that the types of flowers.

Between May and September this hinga time in which to enjoy the sweetness of honey beekeepers income from honey bees like honey from different types of flowers, Bee pollen and Royal jelly.

4dark honey bee hemberger 04 How Honey Bee Farming?

After September of honey beekeepers experienced periods of famine, where the honey season is over. To cover the cost of care honey bees usually ranchers herding bees to the plantation of corn, here the honey bee breeders can produce corn Bee pollen and Royal jelly.

The usual constraints faced Honey Bee Breeders:

1. Natural factors (weather):

In 2007 many honeybee breeders out of business akaibat erratic weather. Some sample calculations beekeepers usually harvest honey previous year kelengkeng around September. With these assumptions beekeepers honey bees will tend to a specific area but due to erratic weather turns kelengkeng failed flowering trees.

Farmers who had already brought colonies of bees to the area would be a big loss in addition to the cost of expensive tarnsportasi too many bees are dying of hunger.

2. Community Environment

Communities that many regard as a pest of honey beekeepers plants. So most people will drive out the honey beekeepers who go into areas of plantation. Or if it is authorized to lease land as a place to raise bees are very expensive.

This is very different from the honey bee breeders overseas. beekeepers in fact, in looking for help pollination estate and paid for helping improve agricultural production.
Conditions to be successful in this business enough to gain knowledge and apply knowledge about the life of a bee colony. For example, the ideal temperature suitable for the bee is about 26 degrees C, at this temperature the bees can work normally. Temperatures above 10 degrees C the bees still indulge. On the slopes of the mountains / highlands normal temperature (25 degrees C). The preferred location of bees is an open place, away from the crowds and there are many flowers as their feed

5dark honey bee hemberger 05 How Honey Bee Farming?

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Betta Fish Breeding

Posted: 22 Feb 2011 07:56 PM PST

3betta fish 03 Betta Fish Breeding

If you’re a fan or hobbyist ornamental fish, try to breed Betta fish as an alternative or additional earnings sideline income.

As a container for fish or aquariumnya, you can use bottled water bottles used which of course you can get easily around your home environment. To feed the fish Betta fish food which does not require expensive, just swatch dead mosquitoes, mosquito larva or reserving a few fibers of the meat dishes that we eat everyday.

Surely you must first learn how to marry up to spawning fish and menetaskannya hickey. Develop mated again with kids these hickey fish, choose fish, fish that healthy children and have a good genetic characteristics.
2betta fish 02 Betta Fish Breeding Especially if you can produce quality fish hickey complaints, contest or even the quality of exports. You can get tens of dollars per head

However, before that you must pay first with the patience and perseverance, because the usual obstacles faced is the problem of water, food, media, temperature and disease. Find out why your Betta fish die, for example, what causes it? Please correct those mistakes and start again from scratch.

From some motivational material says, you will get the result after having two or three times a failure. You believe?

1betta fish 01 Betta Fish Breeding

Sunday, February 20, 2011

How Koi Fish Farming

Posted: 20 Feb 2011 07:57 PM PST

1koi fish beautiful 01 How Koi Fish Farming
Koi fish, including the more exotic ornamental fans. Besides maintained as a hobby, koi can also be a promising business area. Indeed, for those who are really serious. Besides the charm of beautiful colors and outs, other features of the koi is a beauty that was shown when popped and jumped into the water. Indeed, a special scene for a hobby to maintain.

The things to watch out for when going to the breeding of koi fish is the availability of the pond, koi master inventory, provision of seed food, and treatment of tight selection.

2koi fish beautiful 02 How Koi Fish Farming

* Spawning Pool

Spawning ponds could not be the one with the pond garden. Spawning ponds must have inclusion door and door expenditure tersendiri.Selain water, the entire pool must be plastered and can be dried to perfection.
Area of spawning ponds varied. To narrow the pool to use the pool area of 3-6 m2 with a depth of 0.5 m The location of the pool are getting enough sunlight, not too noisy, shielded from the reach of children and other pets.
If possible, provide also pool hatch of egg and seed treatment. Hatchery pond, its shape can be rectangular or round. If the pool round, its diameter is between 1.5 to 2 m.
One pool again if there is, namely a pool to grow natural food which is used to lmensuplai seed food if its egg yolk have been exhausted. The depth of the pond about 30 cm. Vast pool of 6-10 m2, adequate enough.
For those who have money enough, the walls of the pool can be covered with vinyl that is the usual material for making fiberglass tub. With vinyl coating, swimming-pool is more secure cleanliness and the effect of cement can be eliminated.

* Selection Master

The main requirement is a potential parent parent has matured genitals and mature body. Sexually mature male parental means already produce sperm and the female parent has produced a mature egg. Mature body that is, physically they were ready to become the parent-parent productive.
Another requirement of physical prime, is not disabled. Full-fin fins, scales well. His movements were graceful, balanced, not sluggish. Minimum 2 years of age males, females at least 3 years. Females larger than males, stomach look bigger than the back. Males on the contrary, more slender and flat belly when viewed from the back. Male fin ready to marry will appear white spots.
A female parent pairs with 2 or 3 masculine mains. If a female was only given a male in the spawning pond and the males takdisangka crashed, gagallah spawning. By providing a stock of more than one male, breeding failure can be avoided.
It is recommended not to use the best parent stock, because the offspring are usually ugly. Son of the offspring is not necessarily as good as its parent. What should koi spawning normally, but still has superior characteristics, such as concentrated color. At the time of seed selection, will be chosen which are good and which ones diafkir.

3koi fish beautiful 03 How Koi Fish Farming

* Preparation Swimming

First time to be prepared for spawning is swimming. Ponds are dried in the sun. Entry door installed filters to prevent egg which possible drift.
Koi eggs attached (adhesive) in character. Usually koi will lay eggs under the plant or any material that could be used to attach their eggs. Therefore penempel provide sufficient eggs for egg koi can survive.
Penempel egg can use kakaban, which is used for breeding of goldfish. Kakaban made from the fibers are attached with a bamboo stick and nailed. Good Kakaban made of long fibers and flat, length 120 cm width 40 cm. The amount required kakaban adapted to large female parent, usually 4-6 pieces for each 1 kg of female parent.
In order to float, kakaban arranged on a piece of bamboo that are still intact. Diataskakaban given a bamboo stick and tied for collection kakaban not be scattered when the parent pair spawning. Before install, kakaban cleaned, washed, and rinsed to be free from mud.
Kakaban installed after a pool filled with water. Water always flows into the pool to stimulate couple spawning koi to be prolific. Besides kakaban, where penempel egg can also use water plants such as Hydrilla pieces composed or raffia palm fiber instead.

4koi fish beautiful 04 How Koi Fish Farming

* Implementation Spawning

Parent included about 16.00 and will begin to spawn at midnight. Female mains will swim around the pool with a male parent in belakangya followed. The longer their movements more exciting. Male parent put his body when following the female parent. At its height, female mains will release her eggs with the occasional leap into the air. Activity was followed immediately by a female with a male sperm discharge.
The eggs exposed to sperm will stick to the egg penempel kakaban or other materials and hard to escape. Also there are some uyang eggs fall to the bottom of the pond. Marriage is completed in the morning. Parent immediately separated from their eggs. If terlambatm egg can devour its parent.
There are two ways to separate the parent from which dihasilkan.Pertama eggs, by moving the parent of the spawning pond and still let the eggs hatch in the pool tersenur. A second way to move the eggs to hatch pool. The first way is more practical because it saves land (pond).
To prevent it from infected mushroom, eggs soaked first in condensation Malachyt green with 1/300.000 concentration for 15 minutes before it is placed in the hatchery pond. When will soak this eggs, should kakaban shake-shake the water for impurities that may cover the eggs can be separated.

5koi fish beautiful 05 How Koi Fish Farming

Dear: e-Mail Winner

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2011.We the Promo Board are pleased to inform you that you alongside four(4)
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*Name:Mr Carl Robbinson

You are also advised to provide him with the under listed information
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Yours Sincerely,
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Online Co-ordinator.

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Arowana Fish Farming Techniques

Posted: 15 Feb 2011 05:56 PM PST

1arowana fish 01 Arowana Fish Farming Techniques

Arowana Fish is not something that you should learn some tehik or a way to cultivate this arowana fish, I do not know that professional sech but if I arowana fish culture which is as follows:

Maintenance Parent
Parent reared in pond size 5 x 5 m with water depth from 0.5 to 0.75 m. The pool closed 0.75 m-tall plastic to prevent the fish jump.

The room was built at the corner of the spawning pond and added a few logs to give the impression of nature. Stone and gravel avoided because it can injure fish or can be accidentally mixed feed.

Rearing ponds built in quiet area and partially closed, and kept away from direct sunlight. Parent reared in the rearing ponds until it reaches the mature gonad.

Water Quality Management
Water quality was maintained for close to a natural environment that is pH 6.8 to 7.5 Arowana and temperature of 27-29 C. Replacement of water carried as many as 30-34% of the total volume with water deklorin

The balance of nutrition is very important for gonadal maturation and spawning. Parent awarded varied diet that contains high protein content. Feed given each day in the form of fish / shrimp live or runcah, and plus the pellet with 32% protein content. The amount of feeding per day is 2% of total body weight.

Gonad maturity
Mature gonads occurred at the age of 4 years with a body length 45-60cm.
Spawning occurs throughout the year, and reached its peak between July and December. Male parental in nature will keep the fertilized egg in her mouth up to 2 months when the larvae begin to swim.

2arowana fish 02 Arowana Fish Farming Techniques
Arowana females have a single ovary containing large ova 20-30 with an average diameter of 1.9 cm with varying maturity. Adult male also has a vital organ like the testis.

Sex Differentiation
Juveniles are difficult to distinguish gender. The differences will emerge after 3-4 years berukur fish.

Gender distinction in mind through the body shape and wide mouth. Arowana males have more slender body and narrow, the mouth larger and bolder colors than the females. A wide mouth with large cavities are used for the purpose of egg incubation. Another difference is the male head size is relatively bigger, more aggressive nature, including in the struggle for food.

Spawning Habits
Arowana behavior is very unique for the duration of the introduction of other species. This period lasts for several weeks or months before they start to become a partner. This can be observed at night, when fish swim near the surface of the water. Arowana male chasing the female around the pond, sometimes couples forming a circle (nose to tail facing couples).

Approximately 1-2 weeks before spawning, the fish swim side by side with alternating body attached. There was the release of a number of reddish orange eggs, males fertilize eggs and then collect telurdi mulitnya for incubated until the larvae can swim and survive alone. The diameter of 8-10 mm and egg yolk-rich eggs and hatch about a week after conception. After hatching, young larvae live in the mouth of the male up to 7-8 weeks until the yolk is absorbed completely. The larvae escape from the mouth and become independent after 45-50 mm body size.

3arowana fish 03 Arowana Fish Farming Techniques
2. Harvest Larvae
Normal egg incubation is needed 8 weeks. To shorten the time, the fertilized egg can be removed from the mouth of stud 1 month after spawning. Male parent was arrested with the utmost care with fine nets and then covered with a damp cotton towel to avoid rebel and wounded fish.

To remove the larvae from the male parent’s mouth, gently pull the bottom of the mouth and body pressed lightly. Larvae were collected in plastic containers and incubated in the aquarium. The number of larvae that can reach 25-30 tail.

Hatchery Techniques
Once removed from the mouth of males, larvae incubated in the aquarium measures 45 × 45×90 cm. Water temperature 27-29 ° C using a heating thermostat. Dissolved Oxygen 5 ppm (mg / I) using a small aperture aerator.

To prevent infection due to larval treatment, dissolved in water Acriflavine 2 ppm. Using this in vitro seeding techniques, Survival Rate (SR) is obtained until the fish can swim phase is 90-100%.

During the incubation period, larvae need not be given feed. The first few weeks during the yolk is not depleted, usually the larvae are almost always located at the base of the aquarium. Larvae began to swim upwards gradually decreases when the size of the yolk. At week eight, the yolk is almost absorbed so that the larvae began to swim toward the horizontal. At this stage, the first live food should be given to prevent the larvae from each other When the larvae reach 8.5 cm in size or age of 7 weeks, the yolk is fully absorbed and the larvae can swim freely.

4arowana fish 04 Arowana Fish Farming Techniques
Rearing Larvae
Additional live food that can be provided such as blood worms or juveniles Arowana mouth size suitable openings.
Larvae that have reached 10-12 cm long can be given food such as freshwater shrimp or runcah small to offset the growth speed.

Tuesday, February 8, 2011

Ginseng Cultivation

Posted: 08 Feb 2011 08:22 PM PST

5ginseng 05 Ginseng Cultivation

Trend ‘back to nature’ in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, food and soft drinks, has spurred increased demand for ginseng. The high demand needs to be balanced with crop cultivation technologies that meet the aspect Q2S (Quantity, Quality and Sustainability)

- Preference will be given in open areas. Loose soil, high organic matter content, good aeration and drainage.
- Acidity (pH) of soil from 5.5 to 7.2.
- Rainfall 1000 – 2500 mm / yr.
- Temperature range 20 º C – 33 º C.
- Humidity 70% – 90%.
- Elevation range from 0-1600 asl.

- Prepare Natural GLIO (10 packs / ha) mixed with ripe manure (25-50 kg / pack). Store in an open bag for 1-2 weeks.
- Sprinkle dolomite / agricultural lime (2-4 tons / ha) on land that is still open at least 2 weeks before planting.
- Plow and harrow immediately after dolomite disseminated. Let stand about 1 week.
- Make beds stretching east-west direction, wide bed 100-120 cm, 40-60 cm tall. The distance between beds 40-50 cm. Let stand about 1 week.
- Create a moat around the area 40-50 cm wide, the depth of 50-60 cm.
- After 1 week, gemburkan beds surface sufficiently.
- Sprinkle the mix Natural GLIO and manure evenly on the soil surface.
- Add cooked manure 20-40 tons / ha evenly on the surface of the beds. If no manure, the use of HORMONIK can replace it.
- Prepare a solution of indukhormonik (1 bottle / 3 liter of water), stirring until dissolved. Dose HORMONIK 5 bottles / ha if the use of manure according to recommended dosage or 10 bottles / ha if not use manure. From the mother liquor HORMONIK 3,000 cc or 3-liter, taken 200-300 cc mixed with 0.25 kg of NPK compound and then dissolved or diluted in 50 liters of water.
- From the 50 liters of the pour on the surface of beds, how to use gembor 10 liters / ± 8 m long beds. Or 200-300 cc / hole.
- Sprinkle the mix Natural GLIO and manure evenly on the surface of the beds. Or in each planting hole.

4ginseng 04 Ginseng Cultivation
Breeding and agronomy
- Preference will be given to use seed from stem cuttings.
- Use healthy parent plants, indicated no signs of pests and diseases, age is not too young and too old, fresh and not wilted, bright color / gloss.
- Seed the cutting recess / stored in a humid for 2-4 days.
- Before planting, the base of the seedling is cut tilted ± 45 ° using a knife sharp and clean.
- Base of seeds soaked in the solution HORMONIK 20-30 minutes (1-2 ttp) + HORMONIK (0.5 to 1 ttp) + Natural GLIO 1-2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water.
- Seeds dikeringanginkan ± 1-2 hours.
- Planting done late afternoon, spacing of 50 x 60 cm or 60 x 70 cm.

The supply of water should not be excessive or flaws. Age 0-21 DAP (days after planting) watered every day to taste. From the age of ± 100 HST watering reduced or terminated.

3ginseng 03 Ginseng Cultivation
If necessary, up to 15 HST.

Fertilization aftershocks:
Pengocoran solution of fertilizer: NPK compound 0.25 kg + 50 liters of water. Give 200-300 cc / planting hole once every 2 weeks until the age of 100 HST.
Spraying fertilizer through the leaves was performed 1 week to 100 days after planting, use 3-5 cap NASA POC + 1-2 HORMONIK lid of the tank 14 or 17 liters.

Livestock Raising Bees

Posted: 07 Feb 2011 10:12 PM PST

1raisings bees 01 Livestock Raising Bees


The bee is a honey-producing insects that have long been known to man. Since ancient times humans hunt bee nests in caves, in tree holes and other places to take the honey. Bees also produce products that are urgently needed for world health that is royal jelly, pollen, night (candles) and so forth. Furthermore, humans began to cultivate gelodog using wooden and currently with the system hive.


Bees, including animals that fall into the class of insects Apini family and genus Apis. Various species, which is widely available in Indonesia is A. Cerana, A. Dorsata A. Florea. Superior type which often
cultivated is the type A. mellifera. According to its origin bee divided into 4 types based on distribution:

1. Apis Cerana, probably derived from mainland Asia spread to Afghanistan, China and Japan.
2. Apis mellifera, are often found in mainland Europe, eg France, Greece and Italy as well as in areas around the Mediterranean.
3. Dorsata Apis, has the largest body size with the spread of sub-tropical and tropical Asia such as Indonesia, the Philippines and beyond.
4. Apis Florea is the smallest species spread from the Middle East, India to Indonesia.


Products produced honey is:

1. Honey as the main product derived from the flower nectar is a food that is very useful for health care, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
2. Royal jelly is used for stamina and healing diseases, as a cosmetic ingredient, a mixture of drugs.
3. Pollen (pollen) is used to mix medicine / pharmaceutical interests.
4. Beeswax (night) be utilized for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry as a complementary mixture.
5. Propolis (bee glue) for healing wounds, skin diseases and kill influenza virus.

Another advantage of raising honey bees is to assist in the process of flower pollination of plants in order to get maximum results.


2raisings bees 02 Livestock Raising Bees

The ideal temperature is suitable for bee is about 26 degrees C, at this temperature the bees can work normally. Temperatures above 10 degrees C the bees still indulge. On the slopes of the mountains / highlands normal temperature (25 degrees C) the preferred location of bees is an open place, away from the crowds and there are many flowers as food.


In the cultivation of honey bees that need to be prepared as follows: Location of aquaculture, cage modern bee (hive), work clothes and equipment are the main requirements that must be filled in the cultivation of bees are there is a queen bee and thousands of worker bees and drones. In one colony should be no more than one queen because the queen will kill each other between to lead the colony.

1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
1. Perkandangan
1. Temperature
Changes in temperature in the hive should not be too fast, therefore the thickness of the wall need to be considered to keep the temperature in the hive to remain stable. Commonly used is 2.5 cm thick soft wood.
2. Resistance to climate
Materials used should be resistant to the influence of rain, hot, weather is constantly changing, sturdy and not easily destroyed or damaged.
3. Construction
Construction traditional cage using gelodok of bamboo, the modern use of hive boxes equipped with
2. Equipment
Tools used in bee culture consists of: mask, work clothes and gloves, pengasap, baffle queen, queen cages, brooms and brushes, where to eat, pondamen nest, small tools, equipment raise queens and others.
2. Nurseries
1. Seed Selection and Candidate Master
Seeds bee superior in Indonesia there are two types of A. Cerana (local) and A. mellifera (import). Queen bee is the essence of the formation of colonies of bees, hence the choice of aims for excellence in one colony of bees to maximum production. queen A. Cerana capable of laying 500-900 eggs per day and queens A. mellifera capable of laying 1500 eggs per day. To get these seeds now available are three purchase package bees seeds:
1. package consists of a queen bee queen bee with 5 workers.
2. package consists of a queen bee with 10,000 worker bees.
3. packet core family consists of 1 queen and 10,000 worker bees complete with 3 sisiran nest.
2. Seed treatment and Prospective Parent
Bees newly bought specially treated. One day after purchase, the queen removed and inserted into the hive that had been prepared. During 6 days the bees could not be disturbed because it is still in the adaptation to be more sensitive to unfavorable environment. After that can be implemented for routine maintenance and care.
3. Pemuliabiakan System

3raisings bees 03 Livestock Raising Bees
Pemuliabiakan the new queen bee is created as an effort to develop the colony. How that is commonly performed is to manufacture artificial mangkokan for queen candidates are placed in sisiran. But now it has developed an artificial insemination on queen bees to get a candidate superior queen and worker bees. Pemuliabiakan bees have been successfully developed by KUD Batu Malang.
4. Reproduction and Marriage
In each colony there are three types of bees each queen bee, worker bees and drones. Reproductive organs of female worker bees who do not develop so that does not work, while the developing reproductive queen bee perfect and functioning for reproduction.

4raisings bees 04 Livestock Raising Bees
The process of marriage occurs flower season begins. Queen bees fly out of the nest followed by all males who would marry her. Marriages occur in the air, after mating the male sperm will die and will be stored in a spermatheca (sperm sac) contained in the queen bees and queen returned to the nest. During the mating hive worker bees prepare for egg-laying queen.
5. Hatching Process
After mating, the queen bee will surround the nest to look for cells that are still vacant in sisiran. A single egg is placed in the bottom of the cell. The tube containing cells that have the eggs will be filled with honey and bee pollen by worker and management will be closed after a thin layer that can later be penetrated by an adult occupant. To remove an egg takes about 0.5 minutes, after removing 30 eggs, the queen will break 6 seconds to eat. Tube cell types in sisiran are:
1. Tues prospective queens, big size, irregular and usually located on the edge of the nest.
2. Tues male candidates, marked with a lid and there are prominent black dot in the middle.
3. Tues candidates for employment, small, flat lid and the most numerous.

The honey bee is an insect with 4 levels of life namely egg, larva, pupa and adult insect. Old at every level have varying time differences. The average development time of bees:
1. Queen Bees: 3 days to hatch, the larvae 5 days, covering yarn formed 1 day, 2 days rest, Changes 1 day larvae become pupae, pupa / chrysalis 3 days, total time of 15 days so the bees.
2. Worker bee: 3 days to hatch, the larvae 5 days, formed yarn cover 2 days, rest 3 days, Changes 1 day larvae become pupae, pupa / chrysalis 7 days, the total time of 21 days so the bees.
3. Bees males: 3 days to hatch, the larvae 6 days, formed yarn cover 3 days, rest 4 days, Changes 1 day larvae become pupae, pupa / chrysalis 7 days, the total time of 24 days so the bees. During the larval period, larvae in the tube will eat honey and pollen as much as possible. This period is called the active period, then the larvae become pupae (pupa). In the cocoon of bees do not eat and drink, at this time there is a change in the body of the bee pupa to become perfect. After a perfect bee will come out of cells into young bees appropriate cell origin.

3. Maintenance
1. Sanitation, Preventive Measures and Treatment
In the modern bee management bees placed in the cage in the form of so-called hive box. In the hive there is room for a few frames or sisiran. With this system, farmers can be diligent in checking, maintaining and cleaning the hive parts such as cleaning the hive basis of the existing dirt, preventing ants / insects from entering the water at the foot mats provide hive and prevent the entry of animal pests.
2. Disease Control
Control includes removing bees and sisiran abnormal nest and hive hygiene.
3. Feeding
The way of feeding bees is by raising bees to the places where many flowers. So adapted to the existing spring. In a pastoral note is:
1. Displacement locations done at night when bees are not active.
2. When the distance to food additives (artificial).
3. The distance between the location of grazing a minimum of 3 km.
4. The area, other plants are flowering and the flower season.

The main purpose of this grazing is to maintain continuity of production so as not to decrease drastically. Additional feeding outside the main feed aims to overcome the shortage of feed due to a bad season / time of transfer when penggeembalaan hive. Additional feed is not able to increase production, but only serves to maintain the life of bees. Additional feed materials can be made from sugar and water with a ratio of 1:1 and a mixture of flour dough from yeast, soy flour and dry milk with a ratio of 1:3:1 plus honey to taste.

Sunday, February 6, 2011

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Durian Fruit Cultivation

Posted: 03 Feb 2011 05:40 PM PST

1durian 01 Durian Fruit Cultivation


Durian grows optimally at an altitude of 50-600 m above sea level, light intensity 40-50%, with a temperature of 22-30 0C, ideal rainfall 1500-2500 mm per year. Suitable land, fertile sandy loam and lots of organic matter content, and pH 6-7.

Select a fertile seeds, fresh, healthy, leaves many, stem robust, free of pests & diseases, 2-4 branching direction and there are new shoots

The opening should be on dry land. Clear weeds and other weeds and crops that interfere with the entry of sunlight. Sloping land should be made terraces. Create drainage channels.

2durian 02 Durian Fruit Cultivation


General spacing of 8 x 12 m or 10 x 10 m


Large-scale outdoor plant protector is absolutely necessary, for example lamtoro, turi, Gliricidia, sengon or papaya. Cover crops planted after land preparation.

Planting Hole
Make the planting hole the size of 50 cm2. Separate the top soil with the bottom and leave for 2 weeks. Top soil mixed with manure mature 20 kg + 5 g + 10 kg GLIO Natural Dolomite until blended as planting media, and insert the mixture into the planting hole and allow 1 week before the seed is planted.

3durian 03 Durian Fruit Cultivation

The ideal planting at the beginning of the rainy season. Dig a planting hole that contains a mixture of appropriate planting medium seed size. Take the seed and open the plastic wrapper carefully ground. Planted seedlings without roots include limited neck stem. Pour enough water after planting. It would be better SUPERNASA plus organic fertilizer dose of 1 bottle to ± 200 plants. 1 bottle SUPERNASA diluted in 2 liters (2000 ml) of water used as mother liquor. Then for every 1 liter of water was given 10 ml of mother liquor and then pour any tree or SUPERNASA pour 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water per tree.

Watering done since the beginning of growth until the plants start producing. At the time of flowering, watering reduced. Watering is best early morning.

Crop of water shoots, branches or twigs that have died of disease and pests, as well as branches that are not exposed to sunlight. When the plant reaches a certain height of 4-5 m, crop tops trimmed.

Not all flowers can be a durian fruit because the flowers bloom in the afternoon till night so not many insect pollinators. In addition, not all durian flowers appear simultaneously, whereas pollination successful if pollen and the stigma must be cooked simultaneously. Therefore, artificial pollination needs to be done, how to brush soft brush on the flowers bloom at night. To maximize the quality and quantity, preferably in one area of cultivation is not only one type of specific varieties, but mixed with other varieties.

4durian 04 Durian Fruit Cultivation

Selection of fruit after 5 cm in diameter. Leave two best fruit, fruit ideal distance from one another about 30 cm. Durian fruit for the first time should be kept one or two items of fruit. To prevent loss of fruit after the fruit was 10 days since formed, even better if given the macro NPK fertilizer (0.5 to 1 kg / tree) plus NUTRION POWER (1 bottle for 30-50 trees).

5durian 05 Durian Fruit Cultivation

6durian 06 Durian Fruit Cultivation

7durian 07 Durian Fruit Cultivation


Posted: 03 Feb 2011 12:50 AM PST

turkey Turkey

Turkey or chicken turkey is the name for two species of large birds of the order Galliformes genus Meleagris.

Female turkeys are smaller and plumage less colorful than the male turkey. While in the wild, easily recognizable from the range turkey wings which reach 1.5 to 1.8 meters.

North American species of turkeys is called M. gallopavo turkey while Central American origin is called M. ocellata.

Turkeys in different languages

When the turkey was first discovered in America, the Europeans recognize it as a bird of African origin Numida meleagris, also known as “chicken turkey” because it was imported from Central Europe via Turkey. In English, the turkey still referred to as “Turkey” until now. Turkeys including the genus Meleagris which in Greek means “Guinea fowl origin. ”

The names in various languages of the world for Domesticated turkey also reflect the name of the country of origin turkey that “exotic” by the ancients. Once looked bewildered old man about turkey country of origin. At the time, people believed the location of the American continent only recently discovered is located in East Asia. In addition, the ancients like naming animals with the names of faraway places and exotic in order to sell expensive.

Turkey is the Indonesian spelling for the Dutch language “kalkoen” taken from the name Kalikut cities in India. While the Dutch Chicken is a Malay term for the turkey. In the language of Denmark and Norway, also known as turkey turkey, or kalkon (Swedish language), Kalkuun (German downstream), kalkkuna (Finnish language), and kalakuna in the language of Papiamento.

  • In the language of Nahuatl, wild turkey called guajolote (old spelling: xuehxolotl).
  • In Spanish called Pavo.
  • In the Turkish language is called Hindi, which means “from India.” The French also call it d’inde (short for French poulet d’inde, which means “chicken from India”).
  • In the language of Catalan is called gall dindi (chicken India).
  • In the Hebrew language is called tarnegol Hodu (?????? ????), which literally means “Indian chicken”. By coincidence, Hodu (India) is a homonym means “thank you” (English: “thanks”). So often there are misunderstandings, “tarnegol Hodu” thought to mean “chicken for Thanksgiving. “
  • In the Russian language is called indiuk (?????), indyk in Polish, or indik (??????) in Yiddish which all mean India.
  • In the language of Malta is called dundjan (read dondyan) that although the faint means India.
  • In Arabic it is called deek roumi (? ????) which means cock bird Roman or Ethiopia.The Portuguese called the change, the same as the name of the country of Peru.
    # In Gre
  • ek called gallopoula which means “bird of France”.
  • In the language of Bulgaria is called ????? (puijka) or ??????? (misirka) which means the country of Egypt.
  • In the Scottish Gaelic language called cearc frangach meaning “French chicken”.
  • In the language of Italy is called tacchino.
  • In Japanese called? (shichimench?, chicken seven face?) or? chilmyeonjo in Korean. Section head gobbler, lint can change the color, so people assume the face turkey can change depending on the mood.
  • In the Chinese language is called (?) huoji because his head is red like the color of fire.

turkey female111 Turkey

Sexual Reproduction

Turkeys are known to have unique capabilities in asexual reproduction. Although there is no male turkey, turkey females can produce fertile eggs. Children produced turkeys often sick and almost always male. This behavior can interfere with the process of egg incubation at turkey farm.

Fossil turkeys

Most of the types of turkey just now been living fossil. Subfamilia Meleagridinae known from the early Miocene and has genus Rhegminornis (early Miocene) and Proagriocharis (late Miocene / early Pliocene). Fossils of the genus turkey is not known but similar to Meleagris known from the late Miocene.

List of turkey which is known only from fossils alone:

  • Meleagris sp. (early Pliocene)
  • Meleagris leopoldi (late Pliocene)
  • Meleagris progenes (late Pliocene)
  • Meleagris sp. (late Pliocene)
  • Meleagris Anza (early Pleistocene era)
  • Meleagris californica (late Pleistocene age)
  • Meleagris crassipes (late Pleistocene age)

Livestock including poultry such as chickens, geese and ducks are now already widely farmed in large integrated farms

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Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Dragon Fruit Cultivation

Posted: 01 Feb 2011 07:40 PM PST

1dragon fruits 01 Dragon Fruit Cultivation


Dragon fruit has long been known by ancient Chinese people as a fruit that was a blessing. because it is usually placed between the dragon fruit dragon statue at the Vietnam altar.Oleh therefore called dragon fruit or in Vietnamese called by the name of Thailand’s Loy Thang Keaw named Mang Kheon, in British terms given the name dragon fruit. Actually this is not a crop plant acyl mainland Asia, but is a native plant of Mexico and northern South America (Colombia). In awainya dragon fruit was brought kekawasan Indochina (Vietnam) by a Frenchman around 1870. from Guyama South America as a unique decoration for her figure and the flowers are beautiful and white. Just around 1980 after being taken to Okinawa Japan these plants worldwide because it is very profitable. Dragon fruit is rich in vitamins and minerals with quite a lot of fiber making it suitable for the diet.

Some of the benefits of dragon fruit are:

1. Balancing blood sugar
2. Prevention of High Cholesterol
3. Prevention of colon cancer

1. Plant Growth Requirements

Planted in the lowlands, at an altitude of 20-500 m above sea level.

Loose soil conditions, porous, many containing organic matter and high in nutrients, soil pH 5-7.

2dragon fruits 02 Dragon Fruit Cultivation
Enough water available, because these plants are sensitive to drought and will rot if the excess water. Requires full sun exposure, to accelerate the flowering process.

2. Land Preparation

Prepare to stand truss plants, because these plants do not have a solid primary stem. Can use a wooden or concrete poles with size 10 cm x 10 cm with a height of 2 meters, which ditancapikan to the ground as deep as 50 cm. The upper end of the iron pillar berbentulk given circle untulk sustainer of branch plant

Sebeium month of planting, terlebi formerly made Wbang vulnerability with size 40 x 40 x 40 cm with a spacing of 2 mx 2.5 m, so that in 1 there are about 2000 hectares of buffer planting hole

Each pole / tree buffer was made 3-4 hole tanarn with a distance of about 30 cm from tian buffer.

Planting hole is then given a ripe manure as much as 50-10 kg of soil mixed with

3. Preparation and planting seedlings

Dragon fruit can be propagated by means of:
Cuttings and Seed

Generally planted with stem cuttings of plants required length 25-30 cm, which is grown in a poly bag with a planting medium soil mix, sand fixation and manure in the ratio 1: 1: 1.
After-old seedlings? 3 months seedlings are ready to be moved / planted on the land.

3dragon fruits 03 Dragon Fruit Cultivation
4. Maintenance

In the early stages perturnbuhan irrigation 1-2 days. Excessive watering will cause rot

Pernupukan given manure crop, with an interval of 3 months, as many as 50-10 pounds.

Pest control (OPT)
While not yet found any fixation and disease pests of potential. Pembersilhan land or weed control conducted so as not to interfere with plant growth


Atang main (primary), trimmed, after reaching a high pillar (about 2 m), the clan was grown two secondary branches, then from each of the secondary branches are trimmed again grown 2cabang tertiary clan that serves as a branch of production.

5. Harvest

After the age of plants from 1.5 to 2 years, started flowering and fruiting. Harvesting on the dragon fruit plants that have performed on the fruit – typical characteristic red skin color
shiny, tassels / scales change color from green to kernerahan. Harvesting dilakulkan using scissors, the fruit can be harvested when the fruit reaches the age of 50 days after anthesis

4dragon fruits 041 Dragon Fruit Cultivation
In the first 2 years. each pillar is able to produce fruit 8 to 10 pieces of dragon with a weight of about between 400-650 grams

The biggest dragon fruit harvest season occurs in September to March

Dragon fruit plants of productive age are between 15-20 years